Inheriting Personality Traits

When we study personality, we often come to questions of nature versus nurture: are we born with genetic traits that lead us to behave certain ways? Or is it our experience that makes us who we are? Today, it is generally accepted that both nature and nurture play an important role in the development of personality, but to what extent each affects us is still a point of major controversy.

Research on personality types has typically focused on differences between individuals who have reached adulthood, rather than attempting to trace the development of those differences. But recent studies done on children and adolescent personality types have yielded intriguing findings.

Temperament, Personality; Tomay-to, Tomah-to?

Although we can observe individual differences among young children – some newborns are relatively unfussy, others all but impossible to soothe – some argue that we’re not seeing a “personality,” but a “temperament.” However, there are also those who see these terms as virtually synonymous, owing to the fact that many traits of temperament are carried into adulthood, where they come to be a part of personality.

For example, adults who score high on extraversion were often children who would have tested high on “surgency,” a temperament trait associated with high activity levels, impulsivity, and engagement with one’s environment. Similarly, children who are characterized as “shy” or “not particularly social” typically score high in introversion as adults. This isn’t always the case – a physically energetic child may mature into a talkative adult, for instance – but there is often continuity between youthful temperament and adult tendencies.

But if temperament can be seen as the basis for personality, we must still wonder how temperament “evolves” over time. Is a maturing temperament shaped more by forces from within, or without?

Twin Studies

Nature vs. Nurture may still spark lively debates, but there is one thing everyone can agree on: human nature is complicated. In an effort to reduce a dizzying array of variables to manageable observations, researchers have at times turned to twin studies, analyzing both fraternal twins (who share 50% of their genes) and identical twins (who are 100% genetic matches).

One such study, conducted at Edinburgh University on more than 800 sets of twins, found that identical twins were twice as likely as fraternal twins to share personality traits. Other studies have produced similar results in favor of nature’s dominant role in personality development, leading some to believe the debate is over.

However, even if nature is to credit (or blame!) for our developing personalities, the precise mechanism of gene expression into personality traits eludes us. Despite initial optimism that scientists were uncovering the specific genes responsible for everything from alcoholism to antisocial behavior, more recent studies have put these findings in dispute. Personality may have a primarily genetic basis, but the discovery of, say, a “gene for introversion” is unlikely.

Let’s Call the Whole Thing Off?

It can be tempting to simply dismiss the debate as academic: those who study genetic influences on behavior would probably say that, if genes do influence behavior, it is only through an intricate process that we have only begun to understand. Moreover, even if nature is dominant, nurture still plays a significant role in personality development.

But there’s more at stake than simply bragging rights for the “nature” camp or the “nurture” camp. Society itself is an attempt at shaping the behavior of others – consider parenting, education, and the criminal justice system. Currently, we have the luxury of mystery; we know so little about how the forces that shape personality work, we are freed of the responsibility that would come if those answers were known.

As it is, we learn to tolerate and embrace our differences, accepting that which we cannot change – but what if we could change? Would we continue to accept? If a “cure” for a certain personality trait were made available – through gene therapy, for instance – would prospective parents want to use it on their children? On themselves?

Understanding Breeds Acceptance

Our current conception of personality, as an enigmatic accident, is one that strongly encourages a sense of “different, not better.” Most of us understand that some people are thinkers, while some are feelers; some are more outgoing, some are more reserved. And while there are biases – an extravert librarian or an introvert politician still surprises us – most of us feel that there is a place for everyone, and it’s a matter of finding the right fit for our personality.

Whether our differences are more the result of our genes or our upbringing, accepting these differences is more often beneficial than attempting to impose our preferences on others. History, after all, is filled with examples of the harm involved when square pegs have been hammered into round holes.

2 years ago
There's definitely something to the inherited factor. It was always clear that our daughter had many of my personality traits, with some of my husband's. Those of her traits similar to her father's were strongly associated, though. Once we all took this test, it was like seeing what we always knew in literal black and white. I am an ENFP, my husband is an ISTJ... not surprising to us that our child has the type of INFP. The exact aspect of her personality that resembled her father, shone through in the first type set. These tests are fun and accurate, but also helpful. Recognizing your aspects in relation to others is a wonderful tool to have. Thanks for the great descriptions and layouts to this website, makes it an engaging experience!
Loves Kvothe!
2 years ago
I am an INFJ, my brother is an INFJ, my sister is an INFP, my other brother hasn't taken the test, but, I assume, like my parents he is an extrovert. I think it is both nature and nurture, it was my sister who introduced me to books, and writing, if it wasn't for her I would probably be more social, but then again, I wouldn't be writing a book series and have weird friends who have equally dirty minds.
2 years ago
I had interesting discussions with a licensed counselor on the introvert/extravert aspect of personality, and it was her assertion that it was based in the nervous system - whether external stimulation was "boosted" as it travelled the nerves to the brain, or whether it lessened along the route. Those whose nervous system "boosted" the signals need much less stimulation, and do need time to quiet down; those whose nervous system passed signals on with decreasing intensity would seek out stimulation and gain energy from higher-input environments. This tendency would mean that the "introvert/extravert" aspect could be inherited. The internal clock that some have and others lack might also be inherited and be the source of some people wanting to schedule things and others being happy with anything happening whenever it happened. For how you face your challenges, how curious you are about your environment, and other reactions, your family and school would probably play a bigger role in shaping your habits. If you're "just like your mom/dad/uncle", it can also be that you are copying a pattern of behavior because of your feelings toward that person, not anything inherited or trained.
2 years ago
I'm very interested in the genetic factor. Out of 8 children, 2 of us were never not introverts and the other six are all very much extroverts. They still are. From a very young age, my favorite place was my room. It was my world. It was peaceful and quiet. I had found my introverted niche at a very young age and I was happy there. It was the same for my brother, I've learned. As we learned to read, books became part of our worlds and still are. We're both voracious readers still today. I'm clearly an INTP--A. My brother is close. My father is an introvert, something I came to learn years later. But he didn't exhibit any of the behaviors and tendencies we associate with introversion because he was rarely home. His career required that he be deployed, often and for long periods of time. He wasn't there enough to pass it on, so to speak. My brother and I were "different". We knew it and we were told often enough. "Nurture" frowned on introverted tendencies in our house. They were discouraged. My mother still tells every one I'm the oddball and my brother is the "quiet one". But I thought I was more than different. I thought I had something wrong with me. I was flawed. I had to be, I wasn't like my sisters at all. Today, I'm still not like my sisters and I'm good with that. So are they. Would I opt for a "cure" for any of my personality traits? Not a chance. These are what define me and I'm keeping them all. I love being an introvert, including the parts I still struggle with at times. 8 children, one house wrapped in extrovism, one set of house rules, same traditions, beliefs,etc... and yet 2 are introverts from their first memory. Nature or nurture? Society has made great advances in tolerating and accepting the differences in man and I think focus needs to be kept on that because I think this puzzle is going to take awhile.
2 years ago
I am an assertive ESTP. In my family I am the only extrovert and adventurer for that matter. I get little things from my parents but for the most part we're very different. I think personality is one of those things that cannot be predicted. You would never expect me to be an extrovert knowing my parents or my brothers.
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